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2019 – 2020 USASF RULES GLOSSARY

Download USASF Dance Rules Glossary 2019-2020 [PDF]

Airborne (Executed by Individuals, Groups or Pairs): A state or skill in which the dancer is free of contact from a person and/or the performance surface.

Airborne Hip Over Head Rotation (Executed by Individuals): A tumbling skill in which the hips continuously rotate over the head and there is a moment of no contact with the performance surface (Example: Round Off or a Back Handspring).

Axis Rotation: An action in which a dancer rotates around his/her vertical or horizontal center.

Category: Denoting the style of a performance piece or competition routine. (Example: Jazz, Pom, Hip Hop, Contemporary/Lyrical, Kick, and Variety)

Connected/Consecutive Skills: An action in which the dancer executes skills without a step, pause or break in between. (Example: Double Pirouette or Double Toe Touch)

Contact (Executed by Groups or Pairs): When two (or more) people physically touch each other. Touching hair and clothing does not qualify as contact.

Dance Lift (Executed by Groups or Pairs): A skill in which a dancer(s) is elevated from the performance surface by one or more dancers and set down. A Dance Lift is comprised of an Executing Dancer(s) and a Supporting Dancer(s)

Division: Denoting the composition of a competing group of dancers. (Example: Senior Coed, Junior and Youth)

Drop (Executed by Individuals): An action in which an airborne dancer lands on a body part other than his/her hand(s) or feet.

Elevated: An action in which a dancer is moved to a higher position or place from a lower one.

Executing Dancer: A dancer who performs a skill as a part of Groups or Pairs who use(s) support from another dancer(s)

Head Level: A designated and averaged height: the crown of the head of a standing dancer while standing upright with straight legs. (Clarification: this is an approximate height to measure space, and is not changed by bending, inverting, etc.)

Hip Level: A designated and averaged height: the height of a standing dancer’s hips while standing upright with straight legs. (Clarification: this is an approximate height to measure space, and is not changed by bending, inverting, etc.)

Hip Over Head Rotation (Executed by Individuals): An action characterized by continuous movement where a dancer’s hips rotate over the head in a tumbling skill (Example: Back Walkover or Cartwheel)

Hip Over Head Rotation (Executed by Groups or Pairs): An action characterized by continuous movement where the Executing Dancer’s hips rotate over their own head in a lift or partnering skill.

Inversion/Inverted: A position in which a dancer’s waist and hips and feet are higher than his/her head and shoulders.

Inverted Skills (Executed by Individuals): A skill in which a dancer’s waist and hips and feet are higher than his/her head and shoulders and there is a stop, stall, or change in momentum.

Partnering (Executed by pairs): A skill in which two dancers use support from one another. Partnering can involve both Supporting and Executing skills.

Perpendicular Inversion (Executed by Individuals): An inverted position in which the dancer’s head, neck and shoulders are directly aligned with the performance surface at a 90 degree angle.

Prop: An object that can be manipulated and is typically used to enhance the visual effect of a routine.

Prone: A position in which the front of the dancer’s body is facing the ground, and the back of the dancer’s body is facing up.

Shoulder Inversion (Executed by Individuals): A position in which the dancer’s shoulders /upper back area are in contact with the performance surface and the dancer’s waist and hips and feet are higher than his/her head and shoulders

Shoulder Level: A designated and averaged height; the height of a standing dancer’s shoulders while standing upright with straight legs. (Clarification: this is an approximate height to measure space, and is not changed by bending, inverting, etc.)

Supine: A position in which the back of the dancer’s body is facing the ground and the front of the dancer’s body is facing up.

Supporting Leg: The leg of a dancer that supports the weight of the body during a skill.

Supporting Dancer: A dancer who performs a skill as a part of “Groups or Pairs” who supports or maintains contact with an Executing Dancer.

Toss: A skill where the Supporting Dancer(s) releases the Executing Dancer. The Executing Dancer’s feet are free from the performance surface when the toss is initiated.

Tumbling: A collection of skills that emphasize acrobatic or gymnastic ability, are executed by an individual dancer without contact, assistance or support of another dancer(s) and begin and end on the performance surface

Working Leg: The leg of a dancer that is responsible for momentum and/or position during a skill.

Vertical Inversion (Executed by Groups or Pairs): A skill in which the Executing Dancer’s waist and hips and feet are higher than his/her own head and shoulders and the Executing Dancer bears direct weight on the Supporting Dancer(s) by a stop, stall or change in momentum.

2018 – 2019 USASF SKILLS GLOSSARY

Aerial Cartwheel: (airborne hip over head rotation skill without hand support) A skill which emulates a cartwheel but is executed without placing hands on the ground.

Axel: (airborne skill with axis rotation) A turn in which the working leg makes a circle in the air to passé as the supporting leg lifts off the ground enabling the dancer to perform a rotation in the air and then lands on the original supporting leg.

Back Handspring: (airborne hip over head rotation skill with hand support) A skill in which a dancer starts from the feet and jumps backwards rotating through a handstand position. The dancer then blocks off the hands by putting the weight on the arms and using a push from the shoulders to land back on the feet, completing the rotation.

Back Walkover: (non-airborne hip over head rotation skill with hand support) A skill in which the dancer moves backward into an arched position, with the hands making contact with the ground first, then rotates the hips over the head and lands on one foot/leg at a time.

Backward Roll: (a non-airborne hip over head rotation skill with hand support) A skill in which the dancer rotates backward, rotating the hips over the head while curving the spine (a tucked position) to create a motion similar to a ball “rolling” across the floor.

Calypso [ka-lip-SO]: (an airborne skill) A turning leap in which the working leg extends making a circle in the air as the supporting leg lifts off the ground enabling the dancer to perform a rotation in the air, then the supporting (back) leg reaches behind the body, often in an attitude, and then lands on the original working leg.

Cartwheel: (a non-airborne hip over head rotation skill with hand support) A skill where the dancer supports the weight of the body with the arm(s) while rotating sideways through an inverted position landing on one foot at a time.

Chassé [sha-SAY]: A connecting step in which one foot remains in advance of the other; meaning to chase.

Coupé [koo-PAY]: A position in which one foot is held lifted and close to the ankle. Also known as Coup de Pied: quickly takes the place of the other; meaning to cut or cutting.

Développé [develop-AY]: An action in which the working leg moves through passé (bends) before extending into position; meaning to develop.

Dive Roll: (an airborne hip over head rotation skill with hand support) A forward roll where the dancer’s feet leave the ground before the dancer’s hands reach the ground.

Forward Roll: (non-airborne hip over head rotation skill with hand support) A skill in which the dancer rotates forward, rotating the hips over the head while curving the spine (a tucked position) to create a motion similar to a ball “rolling” across the floor.

Fouetté [foo-eh-TAY]: A stationary turn usually done in a series, in which the working leg makes a circle in the air and then into passé as the dancer turns bending (plié) and rising (relevé) at each revolution; meaning to whip. Fouetté turns can also be done to the side or in second position (fouetté à la seconde).

Fouetté à la Seconde: A stationary turn done in a series in which the working leg makes a circle in the air and extends at a 90° angle from the supporting leg remaining parallel to the ground as the dancer turns with a plié and relevé at each revolution.

Front Aerial: (an airborne hip over head rotation skill without hand support) A skill which emulates a front walkover but is executed without placing hands on the ground.

Front Walkover: (a non-airborne hip over head rotation skill with hand support) A skill where the dancer moves forward with the hands making contact with the ground first, then rotates the hips over the head passing through an arched position and lands on one foot/leg at a time.

Glissade [glee-SOD]: A connecting step that transfers weight from one foot to the other; meaning to glide.

Handstand: (a non-airborne inverted skill with hand support) A non-airborne, nonrotating, skill where the dancer supports him/herself vertically on his/her hands in an inverted position and the arms are extended straight by the head and ears.

Headstand: (a non-airborne inverted skill with hand support) A non-airborne, nonrotating, skill where the dancer supports him/herself vertically on his/her head in an inverted position with hands in contact with the floor to support the body.

Jeté [juh-TAY]: A skill in which the dancer takes off from one foot by brushing the feet into the ground and swiftly ‘whipping’ them into the position and then landing on one foot. A jeté can be executed in various directions, sizes and positions.

Kip Up: (a non-airborne in approach, airborne in decent, inverted skill) A skill where the dancer begins in a supine position, rolls back onto their shoulders elevating their hips off the performance surface and into an inverted position. Using their arms and/or legs, core, and momentum, the dancer thrusts their body in an upward direction away from the floor. The movement is completed by bringing the feet to the performance surface keeping the body inline and following to an upright position.

Leap: (an airborne skill) A skill in which the dancer pushes from a plié (bend) off of one foot, becomes airborne, and lands on one foot.

Passé [pa-SAY]: A position or movement in which the working leg bends and connects the foot to, or near, the knee of the supporting leg; meaning to pass. Passé can be executed with the hips parallel or turned out.

Pirouette [peer-o-WET]: (axis rotation) A skill in which the dancer bends (plié) and rises (relevé) to one leg (supporting leg) making a complete rotation of the body; meaning to whirl. A pirouette can be executed in a variety of positions.

Plié [plee-AY]: A preparatory and landing skill in which the dancer bends, softens his/her knees; meaning to bend.

Relevé [rell-eh-VAY]: A skill in which the dancer lifts up to the balls of his/her feet; meaning to rise.

Round Off: (an airborne hip over head rotation skill with hand support) A skill that takes off on one foot and lands on two feet simultaneously. (Clarification: the skill becomes airborne after the hips have rotated over the head).

Shushunova [shush-A-nova]: (an airborne skill) A jump variation in which the dancer lifts extended legs to a toe touch or pike position and then circles them behind the body dropping the chest and landing in a prone support/push up position.

Stationary Turn: A turn, such as a pirouette, that rotates on a single pivot point. (Note: Chainé and Piqué turns do not qualify as Stationary Turns.)

Toe Touch: (an airborne skill) A jump in which the dancer lifts the legs through a straddle position. Hips externally rotate to turn out the legs and the chest is upright. Arms are typically held in a T position.

Tour Jeté: (an airborne skill with axis rotation). A skill in which the dancer takes off from one leg, executes a half turn and lands on the other leg.

Windmill: A skill in which a dancer spins from his/her upper back to the chest while twirling his/her legs around his/her body in a V-shape. The leg motion gives the majority of the power, allowing the body to “flip” from a position on the back to a position with the chest to the ground.

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