The following information is for the 2018-2019 season.

½ Wrap around:
A stunt skill that involves a single base holding a top person usually in a cradle position (as seen in “Swing Dancing”). The base then releases the legs of the top person and swings the legs (which are together) around the back of the base. The base then wraps their free arm around the legs of the top person with the top person’s body wrapped around the back or the base.

Aerial (noun):
Cartwheel or walkover executed without placing hands on the ground.

Airborne/Aerial (adjective):
To be free of contact with a person or the performing surface.

Airborne Tumbling Skill:
An aerial maneuver involving hip-over-head rotation in which a person uses their body and the performing surface to propel himself/herself away from the performing surface.

All 4s:
An “All 4s Position” is when an athlete is on their hands and knees on the performing surface but not in a tucked (nugget) position. When this person is supporting a top person, the “All 4s” position is a waist level stunt.

Assisted-Flipping Stunt:
A stunt in which a top person performs a hip-over-head rotation while in direct physical contact with a base or top person when passing through the inverted position. (See “Suspended Flip”, “Braced Flip”)

Backbend (Stunting):
The athlete’s body forms an arch, typically supported by the hands and feet with the abdomen facing upward.

Back Walkover:
A non-aerial tumbling skill where the athlete moves backward into an arched position, with the hands making contact with the ground first, then rotates the hips over the head and lands on one foot/leg at a time.

Backward Roll:
A non-aerial tumbling skill where the athlete rotates backward into/or through an inverted position by lifting the hips over the head and shoulders while curving the spine (a tucked position) to create a motion similar to a ball “rolling” across the floor.

Ball–X:
A body position (usually during a toss) where the top person goes from a tucked position to a straddle/x-position with the arms and legs or just the legs.

Barrel Roll:
See “Log Roll”

Base:
A person who is in direct weight-bearing contact with the performance surface who provides support for another person. The person(s) that holds, lifts or tosses a top person into a stunt. (See also: New Base and/or Original Base). If there is only one person under a top person’s foot, regardless of hand placement, that person is considered a base.

Basket Toss:
A toss involving 2 or 3 bases and a spotter — 2 of the bases use their hands to interlock wrists.

Block:
A tumbling term referring to the increase in height created by using one’s hand(s) and upper body power to push off the performing surface during a tumbling skill.

Block Cartwheel:
A momentarily airborne cartwheel created by the tumbler blocking through the shoulders against the performing surface during the execution of the skill.

Brace:
A physical connection that helps to provide stability from one top person to another top person. A top person’s hair and/or
uniform is not an appropriate or legal body part to use while bracing a pyramid or pyramid transition. A required brace/bracer
cannot pass through an inverted position during the transition.

Braced Flip:
A stunt in which a top person performs a hip-over-head rotation while in constant physical contact with another top person(s).

Bracer:
A person in direct contact with a top person that helps to provide stability to the top person. This person is separate from a
base or spotter. A required brace/bracer cannot pass through an inverted position during the transition.

Cartwheel:
A non-aerial tumbling skill where the athlete supports the weight of their body with their arm(s) while rotating sideways through an inverted position landing on one foot at a time

Catcher:
Person(s) responsible for the safe landing of a top person during a stunt/dismount/toss/release. All catchers:
1 must be attentive
2 must not be involved in other choreography
3 must not be involved in anything that could prevent them from catching.
Example: A required catcher holding a sign.
4 must make physical contact with the top person upon catching
5 must be on the performing surface when the skill is initiated

Chair:
A prep level stunt in which the base(s) supports the ankle of the top person with one hand and underneath the seat of the top person with the other hand. The supported leg must be in a vertical position underneath the torso of the top person.

Coed Style Toss:
A single base grabs the top person at the waist and tosses the top person from ground level.

Cradle:

A dismount in which the top person is caught in a cradle position.

Cradle Position:
Base(s) supporting a top person by placing arms wrapped under the back and under the legs of the top person. The top person must land in a “V”/pike/hollow body position (face up, legs straight and together) below prep level.

Cupie:
A stunt where a top person is in an upright (standing) position and has both feet together in the hand(s) of the base(s). Also referred to as an “Awesome.”

Dismount:
The ending movement from a stunt or pyramid to a cradle or the performing surface. Movements are only considered “Dismounts” if released to a cradle or released and assisted to the performing surface. Movement from a cradle to the ground is not considered a “Dismount”. When/if performing a skill from the cradle to the ground
the skill will follow stunt rules (twisting, transitions, etc.)

Dive Roll:
An airborne tumbling skill with a forward roll where the athlete’s feet leave the ground before the athlete’s hands reach the ground.

Downward Inversion:
A stunt or pyramid in which an inverted person’s center of gravity is moving towards the performing surface.

Drop:
Dropping to the knee, thigh, seat, front, back or split position onto the performing surface from an airborne position or inverted position without first bearing most of the weight on the hands/feet which breaks the impact of the drop.

Extended Arm Level:
The highest point of a base’s arm(s) (not spotter’s arms) when standing upright with the arm(s) fully extended over the head. Extended arms do not necessarily define an “extended stunt”. See “Extended Stunt” for further clarification.

Extended Position:
A top person, in an upright position, supported by a base(s) with the base(s) arms extended. Extended arms do not necessarily define an “extended stunt”. See “Extended Stunt” for further clarification

Extended Stunt:
When the entire body of the top person is above the head of the base(s).

Examples of “Extended Stunts”: Extension, Extended Liberty, Extended Cupie
Examples of stunts that are not considered “Extended Stunts”: Chairs, torches, flat backs, arm-n-arms, straddle lifts, suspended rolls and leap frogs. (These are stunts where the base(s) arm(s) are extended overhead, but are NOT considered “Extended Stunts” since the height of the body of the top person is similar to a shoulder/prep level stunt.)

Flat Back:
A stunt in which the top person is laying horizontal, face-up, and is usually supported by two or more bases. This is considered
a two-leg stunt.

Flip (Stunting):
A stunting skill that involves hip-over-head rotation without contact with the performing surface or base(s) as the body passes through the inverted position.

Flip (Tumbling):
A tumbling skill that involves hip-over-head rotation without contact with the performing surface as the body passes through the inverted position

Flipping Toss:
A toss where the top person rotates through an inverted position.

Floor Stunt:
Base lying on performance surface on their back with arm(s) extended. A “Floor Stunt” is a waist level stunt.

Flyer:
See “Top Person”.

Forward Roll:
A non-airborne tumbling skill where one rotates forward through an inverted position by lifting the hips over the head and shoulders while curving the spine to create a motion similar to a ball “rolling” across the floor.

Free Flipping Stunt:
A Stunt Release Move in which the top person passes through an inverted position without physical contact with a base, brace, or the performing surface. This does not include Release Moves that start inverted and rotate to non-inverted.

Free Release Move:
A release move in which the top person becomes free of contact with all bases, bracers, or the performing surface.

Front Tuck:
A tumbling skill in which the athlete generates momentum upward to perform a forward flip.

Front Walkover:
A non-aerial tumbling skill in which an athlete rotates forward through an inverted position to a non-inverted position by arching the legs and hips over the head and down to the performing surface landing one foot/leg at a time.

Full:
A 360 degree twisting rotation.

Ground Level:
To be on the performing surface.

Hand/Arm Connection:
The physical contact between two or more athletes using the hand(s)/arm(s). The shoulder is not considered a legal connection when hand/arm connection is required.

Handspring:
An airborne tumbling skill in which an athlete starts from the feet and jumps forwards or backwards rotating through a handstand position. The athlete then blocks off the hands by putting the weight on the arms and using a push from the shoulders to land back on the feet, completing the rotation.

Handstand:
A straight body inverted position where the arms of the athlete are extended straight by the head and ears.

Helicopter:
A stunt where a top person in a horizontal position is tossed to rotate around a vertical axis (like helicopter blades) before being caught by original bases.

Horizontal Axis (Twisting in Stunts):
An invisible line drawn from front to back through the belly button of a non-upright top person.

Initiation/Initiating:
The beginning of a skill; the point from which it originates. The point of initiation for a building skill(s): stunt, pyramid, transition, release move, dismount, or toss is the bottom of the dip from which the skill originates.

Inversion:
The act of being inverted. See “Inverted”.

Inverted:
When the athlete’s shoulders are below her/his waist and at least one foot is above her/his head.

Jump:
An airborne position not involving hip-over-head rotation created by using one’s own feet and lower body power to push off the performance surface.

Jump Skill:
A skill which involves a change in body position during a jump. i.e. toe touch, pike, etc.

Jump Turn:
Any turn that is added to a jump. A “straight jump” with a turn does not make the jump a “jump skill”.

Kick Double:
Skill, typically from a toss, which involves a kick and a 720 degree twisting rotation. A quarter turn performed by the top person during the kick portion is customary and permitted to initiate the twists.

Kick Full:
Skill, typically from a toss, which involves a kick and a 360 degree twisting rotation. A quarter turn performed by the top person during the kick portion is customary and permitted to initiate the twist.

Layout:
An airborne tumbling or toss skill which involves a hip over head rotation in a stretched, hollow body position.

Leap Frog:
A stunt in which a top person is transitioned from one set of bases to another, or back to the original bases, by passing over the
torso and through the extended arms of the base. The top person remains upright and stays in continuous contact with the
base while transitioning. Leap Frog Variations involve a top person transitioning over the torso of a base and/or another top
person.

Leg/Foot Connection:
The physical contact between two or more athletes using the leg(s)/foot (feet). Any connection from the shin to the toe is considered a legal connection when leg/foot connection is allowed.

Liberty:

A stunt in which the base(s) hold one foot of the top person while the other foot is next to the knee by bending the leg.

Load-In:
A stunting position in which the top person has at least one foot in the base(s) hands. The base(s) hands are at waist level.

Log Roll:
A release move, that is initiated at waist level, in which the top person’s body rotates at least 360 degrees while remaining parallel to the performing surface. An “Assisted Log Roll” would be the same skill, with assistance from an additional base that maintains contact throughout the transition.

Multi-based Stunt:
A stunt having 2 or more bases not including the spotter.

New Base(s):
Bases previously not in direct contact with the top person of a stunt.

Non-Inverted Position:
A body position in which either of the conditions below are met.

1. The top person’s shoulders are at or above their waist.
2. The top person’s shoulders are below their waist and both feet are below their head.

Nugget:
A body position in which an athlete is in a tucked position on their hands and knees on the performing surface. When an athlete in a nugget position is supporting a top person, they are considered a base of a waist level stunt.

Onodi:
Starting from a back hand-spring position after pushing off, the athlete performs a ½ twist to the hands, ending the skill as a front handspring step out.

Original Base(s):
Base(s) which is in contact with the top person during the initiation of the skill/stunt.

Pancake:
A downward inversion stunt in which both of the top person’s legs/feet remain in the grip of a base(s) while performing a fold over/pike forward rotation to be caught on the top person’s back.

Paper Dolls:
Single-leg stunts bracing each other while in the single leg position. The stunts may or may not be extended.

Pike:
Body bent forward at the hips with legs straight and together.

Platform Position:
A single leg stunt where the top person’s non-supported leg is held straight next to the supporting leg. Also known as a “dangle” or “target position”.

Prep (stunt):
A two leg stunt in which the top person is being held at shoulder level by the bases in an upright position.

Prep Level:
The lowest connection between the base(s) and the top person is above waist level and below extended level. i.e. prep, shoulder level hitch, shoulder sit.
A stunt may also be considered at Prep-Level if the arm(s) of the base(s) are extended overhead, but are NOT considered “Extended Stunts” since the height of the body of the top person is similar to a shoulder/prep level stunt. i.e. flat back, straddle lifts, chair, T-lift. A stunt is considered below Prep Level if at least one foot of the top person is at waist level, as determined by the height/positioning of the base. (Exception: chair, T-lift and shoulder sit are prep level stunts)

Primary Support:
Supporting a majority of the weight of the top person.

Prone Position:
A face down, flat body position.

Prop:
An object that can be manipulated. Flags, banners, signs, pom pons, megaphones, and pieces of cloth are the only props allowed. Any uniform piece purposefully removed from the body and used for visual effect will be considered a prop.

Punch Front:
See “Front Tuck”.

Pyramid:
Two or more connected stunts.

Rebound:
An airborne position not involving hip-over-head rotation created by using one’s own feet and lower body power to propel off the performance surface — typically performed from or into a tumbling skill.

Release Move:
When the top person becomes free of contact with all people on the performing surface; see “Free Release Move”

Rewind:
A free-flipping release move from ground level used as an entrance skill into a stunt.

Round Off:
Similar to a cartwheel except the athlete lands with two feet placed together on the ground instead of one foot at a time, facing the direction from which they arrived.

Running Tumbling:
Tumbling that involves a forward step or a hurdle used to gain momentum as an entry to a tumbling skill.

Second Level:
Any person being supported above the performing surface by one or more bases.

Series Front or Back Handsprings:
Two or more front or back handsprings performed consecutively by an athlete.

Shoulder Level:
A stunt in which the connection between the base(s) and top person is at shoulder height of the base(s).

Shoulder Sit:
A stunt in which a top person sits on the shoulder(s) of a base(s). This is considered a prep level stunt.

Shoulder Stand:
A stunt in which an athlete stands on the shoulder(s) of a base(s).

Shushunova:
A straddle jump (toe touch) landing on the performing surface in a prone/push-up position.

Single Based Stunt:
A stunt using a single base for support.

Single Leg Stunt:
See “Stunt”.

Split Catch:
A stunt with a top person who is in an upright position having knees forward. The base(s) is holding both inner thighs as the top person typically performs a high “V” motion, creating an “X” with the body.

Sponge Toss:
A stunt similar to a basket toss in which the top person is tossed from the “Load In” position. The top person has both feet in the bases’ hands prior to the toss.

Spotter:
A person whose primary responsibility is to prevent injuries by protecting the head, neck, back and shoulders area
of a top person during the performance of a stunt, pyramid or toss. All “Spotters” must be your own team’s members and be
trained in proper spotting techniques.
The spotter:
– must be standing to the side or the back of the stunt, pyramid or toss.
– must be in direct contact with the performing surface.
– must be attentive to the stunt being performed.
– must not be involved in anything that could prevent them from spotting.
Example: A required spotter holding a sign.
– must be able to touch the base of the stunt in which they are spotting, but does not have to be in direct physical
contact with the stunt.
– cannot stand so that their torso is under a stunt.
– may grab the wrist(s) of the base(s), other parts of the base(s) arms, the top person(s) legs/ankles, or does not have
to touch the stunt at all.
– may not have both hands under the sole of the top person’s foot/feet or under the hands of the bases.
– may not be considered both a base and the required spotter at the same time. If there is only one person under a top
person’s foot, regardless of hand placement, that person is considered a base.
Example: In a two leg stunt, the base of one of the legs is not allowed to also be considered the required spotter
(regardless of the grip).
If the spotter’s hand is under the top person’s foot it must be their front hand. Their (the spotter’s) back hand MUST be
placed at the back of the ankle/leg of the top person or on the back side of the back wrist of the base.

Standing Tumbling:
A tumbling skill (series of skills) performed from a standing position without any previous forward momentum. Any number of steps backward prior to execution of tumbling skill(s) is still defined as “standing tumbling.”

Step Out:
A tumbling skill that lands on one foot at a time as opposed to landing on both feet simultaneously.

Straddle Lift:
See “ V-Sit”.

Straight Cradle:
A release move/dismount from a stunt to a cradle position where the top person keeps their body in a “Straight Ride” position — no skill (i.e. turn, kick, twist, pretty girl, etc.) is performed.

Straight Ride:
The body position of a top person performing a toss or dismount that doesn’t involve any trick in the air. It is a straight line position that teaches the top to reach and to obtain maximum height on toss.

Stunt:
Any skill in which a top person is supported above the performance surface by one or more persons. A stunt is determined to be
“One Leg” or “Two Leg” by the number of feet that the top person has being supported by a base(s). If the top person is not
supported under any foot, then the number of legs in which the top person is supported will determine if it is a “One Leg” or a
“Two Leg” stunt. Exception: If a top person is in a V-sit, pike position or non-upright flat body position the stunt will be
considered a “Two Leg” stunt.

Suspended Backward Roll:
A suspended roll that rotates in a backward rotation. See Suspended Roll

Suspended Forward Roll:
A suspended roll that rotates in a forward rotation. See Suspended Roll

Suspended Roll:
A stunt skill that involves hip over head rotation from the top person while connected with hand/wrist to hand/wrist of the base(s) that is on the performing surface. The base(s) will have their arms extended and will release the feet/legs during the rotation of the skill. The rotation of the top person is limited to either forward or backward.

T-Lift:
A stunt in which a top person with arms in a t-motion is supported on either side by two bases that connects with each of the hands and under the arms of the top person. The top person remains in a non-inverted, vertical position while being supported in the stunt.

Tension Roll/Drop:
A pyramid/stunt in which the base(s) and top(s) lean forward in unison until the top person(s) leaves the base(s) without assistance. Traditionally the top person(s) and/or base(s) perform a forward roll after becoming free from contact from each other.

Three Quarter (3/4) Front Flip (stunt):
A forward hip-over-head rotation in which a top person is released from an upright position to a cradle position.

Three Quarter (3/4) Front Flip (tumble):
A forward hip-over-head rotation from an upright position to a seated position on the ground, with the hands and/or feet landing first.

Tic-Tock:
A stunt that is held in a static position on one leg, base(s) dip and release top person in an upward fashion, as the top person switches their weight to the other leg and lands in a static position on their opposite leg.

Toe/Leg Pitch:
A single or multi-based stunt in which the base(s) toss upward traditionally using a single foot or leg of the top person to increase the top person’s height.

Toss:
An airborne stunt where base(s) execute a throwing motion initiated from waist level to increase the height of the top person.
The top person becomes free from all contact of bases, bracers and/or other top persons. The top person is free from
performing surface when toss is initiated (ex: basket toss or sponge toss). Note: Toss to hands, toss to extended stunts and
toss chair are NOT included in this category. (See Release Moves).
Twisting Tosses: Twisting is cumulative. All twisting up to 1 1/4 is considered 1 skill, exceeding 1 1/4 up to 2 1/4 is two skills. ie.
A 1/2 twist, X, 1/2 twist is considered 2 skills: 1 full twist and 1 additional skill.

Top Person:
The athlete(s) being supported above the performance surface in a stunt, pyramid or toss.

Tower Pyramid:
A stunt on top of a waist level stunt.

Transitional Pyramid:
A top person moving from one position to another in a pyramid. The transition may involve changing bases provided at least one athlete at prep level or below maintains constant contact with the top person.

Transitional Stunt:
Top person or top persons moving from one stunt position to another thereby changing the configuration of the beginning stunt. Each point of initiation is used in determining the beginning of a transition. The end of a transition is defined as a new point of initiation, a stop of movement, and/or the top person making contact with the performance surface.

Traveling Toss:
A toss which intentionally requires the bases or catchers to travel in a certain direction to catch the top person. (This does not include a quarter or half turn by the bases in tosses such as a “Kick Full”).

Tuck Position:
A position in which the body is bent at the waist/hips with the knees drawn into the torso.

Tumbling:
Any hip over head skill that is not supported by a base that begins and ends on the performing surface.

Twist:
An athlete performing a rotation around their body’s vertical axis. (vertical axis=head to toe axis)

Twisting Stunt:
Any twisting transition involving a top person and a base(s). The degree of twist is generally determined by the total continuous rotation(s) of the top person’s hips in relation to the performance surface. Twisting will be measured by using both the “Vertical Axis” (head-to-toe) and “Horizontal Axis” (through belly button in a non-upright position). Simultaneous rotation on the Vertical and Horizontal axes should be considered separately, not cumulatively, when determining the degree of twist. A dip by the bases and/or change in direction of the twisting rotation, starts a new transition.

Twisting Tumbling:
A tumbling skill involving hip over head rotation in which an athlete rotates around their body’s “Vertical Axis”.

Two – High Pyramid:
A pyramid in which all top persons are primarily supported by a base(s) who is in direct weight- bearing contact with the performing surface. Any time a top person is released from their base(s) in a “Pyramid Release Move”, regardless of the height of the release, this top person would be considered “passing above two persons high”. “Passing above two persons high” does not relate to the actual height of the top person but to the number of layers to which they are connected.

Two and One Half (2-1/2) – High Pyramid:
A pyramid in which the top person(s) has weight bearing support (not braced) by at least one other top person and is free of contact from the base(s). Pyramid height for a “Two and One Half High Pyramid” is measured by body lengths as follows: chairs, thigh stands and shoulder straddles are 1½ body lengths; shoulder stands are 2 body lengths; extended stunts (i.e.
extension, liberty, etc.) are 2½ body lengths. “Above Two and One Half (2 1/2) High Pyramid” is a partially/fully upright prep level Middle Layer holding a fully upright prep
level stunt. Exception: 2 1/2 high chairs are considered 2 1/2 high pyramids.

Upright:
A body position of a top person in which the athlete is in a standing or sitting position while being supported by a base(s).

V-Sit:
A top person’s body position when sitting in a stunt with straight legs parallel to the performing surface in a “V” position. This is
considered a two-leg stunt.

Vertical Axis (Twisting in Stunts or Tumbling):
An invisible line drawn from head to toe through the body of the tumbling athlete or top person.

Waist Level:
A stunt in which the lowest connection between the base(s) and the top person is above ground level and below prep level and/or at least one foot of the top person is below prep level, as determined by the height/positioning of the base. Examples of stunts that are considered waist level: All 4s position based stunts, a nugget-based stunt. A chair and a shoulder sit are
considered prep level stunts, not waist level.

Walkover:
A non-aerial tumbling skill involving hip-over-head rotation in which a person rotates forward/backward (usually performed with the legs in a split position) with support from one or both hands.

Whip:
A non-twisting, backward-traveling, aerial tumbling skill in which the athlete’s feet rotate over their head and body, while the body remains in a stretched upper back position. A “Whip” has the look of a back handspring without the hands contacting the ground.

X-Out:
A tumbling skill or toss in which an athlete performs a flip while spreading the arms and legs into an “x” fashion during the rotation of the flip.